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写作课第三节&第四节作业
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1) Litotes[br]2) Personification[br]3) Rhetorical Question[br]4) Oxymoron[br]5) Allusion [br]6) Hyperbole[br]7) Parallelism[br]8) Simile/personification[br]9) Parallelism/repetition[br]10) Metaphor[br]11) Metaphor[br][br]2.[br]1)Miley Cyrus has many rigid disciplines for men she meets on dates according to Heat Magazine, and her assistant always arranges the garments men wear, topics men choose, prohibition of bringing flowers because she doesn’t like them.[br]2)In Indonesia, cheese-topped donuts are popular,and KFC decided to introduce glaze donut with cheese in 2013.[br]3)On the auction on Saturday, the original Batmobile fetched 137,000 dollars, which is a small part of 4.2 million dollars that a purchaser paid for another version on 1960s’ TV shows.[br]4) An old man wounded a few intruders with guns and he taped a note said that he will be waiting if they come again.[br]3.[br]1)Metaphor. By comparing the current method of the climate changing to the blind spot, the author was trying to claim that the current method -- trying to engineer hot weather out of existence is not good, not desirable. Blind spot is a vivid image to the readers, which they will be shocked by this and then think about the whole issue and then they will agree with the author’s argument which is the used of air conditioning should be controlled within reason.[br]2)Comparison. The statistics in the passage illustrates a strong comparison between the foreign correspondents between 2003 and 2011 which shows that the number of the reporters are decreasing, through this comparison, the author points out that one major reason for the crisis of foreign news is the shrinking of the number of the foreign reporter and the degrading of them.With this fact, the audience may doubt the credibility of the international news they read every day. With this feeling, the audience will conclude that there must be more professional journalists to improve the quality and the credibility of international news, which reaches the opinion of the author.[br]3)Rhetorical Question. The author asked an rhetorical question which the answer is obvious, we definitely want to see the whole picture of Mona Lisa if it is broken in 2 pieces.Through this question, the author demonstrates that like Mona Lisa, there is also a widespread desire to see the scattered sculptures of Parthenon reunite.[br]4)Parallelism. Enumerate the consequences of reading less and emphasize him with a series of adjectives to give readers a sense of crisis,If the rate of reading and education in a country of a nation is declining, the country and the nation will become more and more foolish, ignorant. So the reading rate will have a negative impact on the United States. This is common sense, when readers read this, they will have a sense of crisis.[br]4.[br]Adapted from Sita Slavov, “A Carbon Tax Beats a Vacuum Ban.” ©2014 by usnews.com. Originally published January 23, 2014. [br]Many world’s powerful governments or even countries have been trying to mitigate global warming. However, though their intentions are undoubtedly good, their strategies are not acclaimed and accepted by all; for example, the Vaccum Ban administered by the European Union starting in September has caused many debates around it. Sita Slavov addressed his views in an article “A Carbon Tax Beats a Vacuum Ban.” published on usnews.com, apparently standing for replacing Vaccum Ban with a better policy: Carbon Tax. This passage successfully persuades the audience through its solid factual evidence and delicate rhetorical questions and other stylistic devices.[br]Slavov starts her argument by asking the audience that “Do we really want the government telling us what kind of vacuum cleaner or light bulb to buy?” The answer to the rhetorical question is definitely no. By asking this question, Slavov arouses the audience’s awareness to the fact that the Vacuum Ban itself is against their willingness and thus should not be carried out. Besides, Slavov successfully connects the Vacuum Ban with the audience’s daily life. Therefore, she appeals to the public’s emotion of self-interest that now that this regulation is closely related to “our” life, it is “our” responsibility to resist it with resolution. In this sense, Slavov successfully wins most readers’ agreement on the proposal that the Vacuum Ban must be admonished to protect their self-interest.[br]Factual evidence, one of the most basic but most useful support of an argumentative essay, supports the Sita’s arguments strongly and straight to the point. Sita shows clearly how average people would be affected as soon as the usage of vaccum clears is cut through statistics in Paragraph 1. The EU attempts to lower power consumed by vaccum cleaners to 1600 watts or even less, while “the average vacuum cleaner sold today uses 1,800 watts.” It simply means that people have to stop using vacuum cleaner for a long time until the 1600 watts cleaners are produced and sold. This is as ridiculous as it sound. The readers can sense this through the numbers as well, and feel offended by the deprivation of their rights and choices to buy and use the vacuum cleaner. As a result, they might repel the Vacuum Ban and look forward to the carbon tax that is brought up later. Another good supporting evidence appears in the Paragraph is in paragraph 8,Sita writes: “90 percent” of leading academic economists reached an agreements that Carbon tax would be much more economical in reducing carbon-dioxide, alluding that we should prefer carbon tax on the ground of economic interest. This piece of suggestion is worth-taking primarily because they are not only credible for it is supported by “90 percent” experts in the professional field, but also impartial for the experts represent a variety of demographic backgrounds and political views. This evidence can also possibly change readers’ stereotypical hostility towards tax policies for it is endorsed by so many experts, and readers realize that trust in the professional studies and views, which support Sita’s argument strongly. [br]All in all, using the refined illustration of the eloquent devices represented by rhetorical questions, and quoting from experts, Slavov succeeds in verifying her promotion that the carbon tax, compared to the Vacuum Ban, is a far more reasonable and tantalizing option for policymakers and everyman. It is the sophisticated use of these rhetorical devices that makes her argument worth of recognition. By the end of the article, the readers will likely find themselves accepting the agreement with the author, and it isn’t for no reason.
写作作业 第三节&第四节[br]1.判断下列句子中使用的修辞手法[br]1)litotes[br]2) personification[br]3) rhetorical questions[br]4) paradox Oxymoron[br]5) allusion (to the bible)[br]6) hyperbole[br]7) parallel[br]8) simile, personification[br]9) parallel/repetition[br]10) metaphor, parallel Antithesis[br]11) personification Metaphor[br]2.改写下列句子[br]According to Heat magazine, Miley Cyrus sets a list of intense rules for her dates such as what to wear, talk and bring on a date; for example, one is not allowed to bring her flowers for she does not favor them.[br]As cheese-topped donuts are somehow prevailing in Indonesia, KFC took action to offer a glazed donuts with cheese in September 2013. In 2013, a KFC in Indonesia began selling shredded Swiss and cheddar cheese topped glazed donuts, a treat that is 
popular in this Asian country. 
[br]3) The original Batmobile that priced as $137,000 at auction on this Saturday occupies a small fraction of the one that fetched $4.2 million, aired during the 1960s.[br]4) A 68-year-old man claims that two men in ski mask, who wanted to break in his home, was scared off by his constant walker and note on the door.[br]3. 判断下述文本使用的修辞手法;并结合论点,分析修辞起到的效果。[br]Metaphor[br]By comparing human’s misconception regarding air conditioning and climate change to “one of our biggest environmental blindspot”, the author made it clear that we, humans, should take action to restrain from further consuming air conditioning for the sake of climate change. Readers might first get shocked by this unexpected metaphor, and realize that their daily habit, “engineer hot weather out of existence”, is actually a great contributor to climate change, yet often overlooked. The metaphor also strengthens the tone, which urges people to mend for their mistakes and stop excessively using air conditioning.[br]The blind shot is a vivid imagery that can appeal to the audience’s sense of shock under which the audience start to think about the whole issue refreshingly until finally concur with the author that it is the reduction of using air- conditioning that is the most favorable measure to protect the environment. 
[br][br]2) Comparison[br]The status quo for professional foreign news coverage is illustrated directly through statistical comparison of the count of foreign correspondents for over 8 years. As the “307” has dropped to “234”, almost one third of the original population, we are well informed of the crisis in the professional foreign news coverage field as there is no news without correspondents. If this is true, readers should be able to recall on their daily lives, and become aware of the decreased amount of foreign news, and thus find the comparison revealing. They would further resonate with the author that it is indeed urgent to increase professional foreign news coverage in order to maintain the quality and diversity of news.[br]The statistics mentioned in the paragraph make an explicit comparison between the number of foreign correspondents in 2003 and 2011, which communicates a message to the audience that the number is dramatically decreasing. Through this comparison, the author points out that one major reason for the crisis of foreign news is the shrinking and degrading of reporters. Once grasping this fact, the audience may feel uneasy and disconcerted, and some may even begin to doubt the credibility of the international news they read every day. With this feeling, the audience will conclude that there must be more professional journalists to improve the quality of international news, thus reaching a consensus with the author’s opinion. [br]语句衔接很棒[br]1……comparison. 2.Through this comparison,…(reveal the fact). 3.Once grasping this fact, …(the audience’s feeling). 4. With this feeling, …(reach conclusion and consensus).[br][br]3) Allusion[br]The author successfully appeals to his audience by referring to Mona Lisa, an art piece that anyone with basic common sense would know, and making use of rhetorical questions at the same time. Questioning his readers if they would wish for the integrity of Mona Lisa if it were separated, the author alludes that sculptures of the Parthenon, also a great historical art piece, should be completed. Fear of separation of Mona Lisa, readers might start to feel the same way about the Parthenon sculptures as they are as invaluable as Mona Lisa. Consequently, they may start to consider and accept the author’s argument to bring back pieces of Parthenon from the world, and empathize with him/her at the same time.[br]4) Parallelism[br]The situation is further stressed by the author through emotionally persuasive element: parallelism. The paragraph tells that a “free, innovative, or productive” society needs citizens to be“informed, active and independent-minded”, who are gradually lost through the decline of reading. Emphasizing the qualities brought by reading again and again, the author polishes his argument as this parallelism appeals to reader’s emotions. They might be moved and even feel the anxiety to read, which in return corresponds with the author’s opinion.[br][br]4. 真题演练[br](2016 年 6 月 4 日亚太考区)[br]Adapted from Sita Slavov, “A Carbon Tax Beats a Vacuum Ban.” ©2014 by usnews.com. Originally published January 23, 2014. [br]Many world’s powerful regimes have been trying to mitigate global warming. However, though their intentions are undoubtedly good, their strategies are not acclaimed by all; for example, the Vaccum Ban administered by the European Union starting in September has caused many debates around it. Sita Slavov addressed his views in an article “A Carbon Tax Beats a Vacuum Ban.” published on usnews.com, apparently standing for replacing Vaccum Ban with a better policy: Carbon Tax. This passage successfully persuades the audience through its solid factual evidence and delicate rhetorical questions and other stylistic devices. [br]Factual evidence, one of the foundations of an argumentative essay, supports the Sita’s arguments strongly and straight to the point. Sita shows clearly how average people would be affected as soon as the usage of vaccum clears is cut through statistics in Paragraph 1. The EU attempts to lower power consumed by vaccum cleaners to 1600 watts or even less, while “the average vacuum cleaner sold today uses 1,800 watts.” It simply means that people have to stop using vacuum cleaner for a long time until the 1600 watts cleaners are produced and sold. This is as ridiculous as it sound. The readers can sense this through the numbers as well, and feel offended by the deprivation of their rights and choices to buy and use the vacuum cleaner. As a result, they might repel the Vacuum Ban and look forward to the carbon tax that is brought up later. Another good supporting evidence appears in the Paragraph 8. Sita writes: “90 percent” of leading academic economists reached an agreements that Carbon tax would be much more economical in reducing carbon-dioxide, alluding that we should prefer carbon tax on the ground of economic interest. This piece of suggestion is worth-taking primarily because they are not only credible for it is supported by “90 percent” experts in the professional field, but also impartial for the experts represent a variety of demographic backgrounds and political views. This evidence can also possibly change readers’ stereotypical hostility towards tax policies for it is endorsed by so many experts, and readers realize that they should not go with the tide but trust in the professional studies and views, which support Sita’s argument strongly. [br]Rhetorical question is the most prominent stylistic device Sita applies in this article, and it plays its role really well in persuading the audience emotionally. “Do we really want the government telling us what kind of vacuum cleaner or light bulb to buy? Don’t policy makers have better things to think about?” (Paragraph 3). Instead of imposing his opinion on the readers, Sita encourages them to participate in the decision making and seek for this one and only answer to the question themselves: we don’t want the government telling us what to buy, and policy makers should have better things to think about, and finally leads them to the conclusion: we don’t want Vacuum Ban. Through this process, readers might feel more connected and empathetic with the author, and thus agree with the author’s implied argument. Additionally, Sita also adds ironic tone by saying that policy makers have nothing else to do but banning people from using vacuum. Readers might get agitated or even irritated by this and consequently take the opposite position against Vacuum Ban, which corresponds with the author’s position.[br]Though Sita does not present a pile of evidence and devices, every single strategy he uses is effective and strong in persuading his audience that carbon tax is way better than vacuum ban and should be administered. His proficient application of statistics, experts quotation, and rhetorical questions all give readers enough rational and emotional reasons to trust in his arguments, and take action to stand for the carbon tax. [br][br][br][br][br][br]
1) William Shakespeare was not a bad playwright at all.[br]Litotes[br]2) The flowers danced in the gentle breeze.[br]Personification[br]3) Can you imagine the danger if sleepy teenagers were allowed to drive their cars during rush hours?[br]Rhetorical question[br]4) I must be cruel to be kind. (Shakespeare, Hamlet)[br]Oxymoron[br]5) You are a Solomon when it comes to making decisions.[br]Allusion[br]6) I had to wait in the station for ten days—an eternity. (From Joseph Conrad, The Heart of Darkness)[br]Hyperbole[br]7) Wounds caused by knives will heal; wounds caused by words will not heal.[br]Antithesis[br]8) The sun peered, like a curious child, over the top of the mountain.[br]Simile[br]9) We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills, we shall never surrender. (Winston Churchill) [br]Parallelism[br]10) Speech is silver, but silence is gold.[br]Antithesis[br]11) The road, which snaked into and around the mountains, was a beautiful drive.[br]Metaphor[br][br]1) According to Heat magazine, Miley Cyrus has a list of intense rules for her men-to-be while out on dates. Apparently her assistant arranges what the guy must wear, do, and talk about on the date. She’s also not into flowers, so he’s banned from bringing her those.[br]As stated in Heat magazine, Miley Cyrus lists some strict rules for dating. She’s so specific about what her dates wear, say, and do, that she has her assistant enforce these rules on dates. Cyrus does not even like flowers and won’t let her dates buy them for her.[br]2) For some reason, cheese-topped donuts are quite popular in Indonesia, and in September 2013 KFC decided to get in on the action, offering a glazed donut topped with shredded Swiss and cheddar cheese.[br]In 2013, a KFC in Indonesia began selling shredded Swiss and cheddar cheese topped glazed donuts, a treat that is popular in this Asian country.[br]3) The original Batmobile fetched $137,000 at auction on Saturday, a small fraction of the $4.2 million that a buyer paid last year for another version built for the television show that aired during the 1960s. [br]The original Batmobile only sold for $137,000 at auction, but the Batmobile built for the 1960’s TVs show sold for $4.2 million the year before.[br]4) A 68-year-old man says he scared off two men in ski masks trying to break in his home with his gun he can keep on his walker. And then he taped a note to his door saying if they try to break in his house again, he will be waiting on them. Two men attempted to break into a 68-year-old man’s home; however, they were scared off by the gun the man kept on his walker. Afterwards, the old man taped a note to the door warning that he’d be waiting for the burglars if they came back.[br]1) 论点:The use of air conditioning should be controlled within reason. [br]原文:Trying to engineer hot weather out of existence rather than adjust our culture of consumption for the age of climate change is one of our biggest environmental blind spots. (Viewpoint: Air-Conditioning Will Be the End of Us, p6) [br]Metaphor[br]The author uses blind spots to illustrate that engineering hot weather out of existence is a bad idea. The author furthers his argument that a more fitting measure should be implemented, that is, to adjust our culture of consumption. The blind shot is a vivid imagery that can appeal to the audience’s sense of shock under which the audience start to think about the whole issue refreshingly until finally concur with the author that it is the reduction of using air conditioning that is the most favorable measure to protect the environment.[br]2) 论点:News organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided o people in the United States. [br]原文:Back in 2003, American Journalism Review produced a census of foreign correspondents then employed by newspapers based in the United States, and found 307 full-time people. When AJR repeated the exercise in the summer of 2011, the count had dropped to 234. And even that number was significantly inflated by the inclusion of contract writers who had replaced full-time staffers. (Foreign News at a Crisis Point, p1) [br]Antithesis[br]The statistics between the number of foreign correspondents in 2003 and 2011 make a contrast. This contrast indicates the dramatic decreasing of the number. Through this comparison, the author points out that one major reason for the crisis of foreign news is the shrinking and degrading of reporters. The audience may feel uneasy and disconcerted, and some may begin to doubt the credibility of the international news they read every day. With this feeling, the audience will conclude that there must be more professional journalists to improve the quality of international news, thus reaching a consensus with the author’s opinion. [br]3) 论点:The sculptures of the Parthenon should be returned to its origin, Greece. [br]原文:If the Mona Lisa had been sawed in two during the Napoleonic Wars and the separated halves had been acquired by different museums in, say, St. Petersburg and Lisbon, would there not be a general wish to see what they might look like if re-united? (The Lovely Stones, p4) [br]Rhetorical question[br]The answer to this rhetorical question is obvious: if the Mona Lisa had been sawed in two, there is no denying a wish to see the two halves reunite. Through this self-evident question, the author demonstrates that similar with Mona Lisa, there also exists a widespread desire to see the scattered sculptures of Parthenon reunite. Via this analogy, the author appeals to the author’s consciousness of beauty to appreciate the unbroken Parthenon sculptures and eagerness to help gather the pieces. Therefore, anyone who worships the magnificence of Greek sculptures will feel requisite and accountable for realizing the reunion of Parthenon’s sculptures.[br]4) 论点:The decline of reading in America will have a negative effect on society. [br]原文:As more Americans lose this capability, our nation becomes less informed, active, and independent-minded. These are not the qualities that a free, innovative, or productive society can afford to lose. (Why Literature Matters, p10)[br]Diction[br]In this passage, words such as “less informed, active, independent-minded” are terms with a strong connotation that can appeal to audience’s profound sense of uneasiness and even panic. As the author declares that the reason for this unfavorable consequence is the losing capability of reading nationally, the audience may feel impending to reverse the undesirable trend by improving Americans’ reading ability. The author furthers his argument by saying that if the situation worsens, the core evaluation that America lives by—freedom, innovation, and production— will disappear. At this point, being also aroused with a sense of patriotism, the audience will nod with the author’s claim that the adverse effect brought by the decline of reading in America should be remedied without hesitation. In other words, as no one can afford this aftermath, the first and foremost thing to do is to improve the reading ability of every American.[br]