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06-21
写作课第一节&第二节作业
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1.1)论据 逻辑 修辞,逻辑建立在论据和修辞之上,论据可用修辞表达出来从而产生逻辑[br]2)数据(statistics) 事实(fact) 研究成果(research result) 专家建议(experts' advice) 个人经历(personal anecdote)[br]3) 选取与中心论点关系最为密切的,出现频率最高的,阐述空间最大的论证手法[br]4)不能,因为学生的回答必须由解析作者的论证思路和达到的效果而得到,只依据自己的知识作出回答是无效的。[br]2.1)事实,地球绕着太阳公转[br]2)数据,亚裔美国人最不容易超重或是得肥胖症[br]3)个人经历、数据,良好睡眠有助于考试取得好成绩[br]4)研究成果、数据,年轻人较容易在白天时睡着[br]5)个人经历,我能够成为你们理想的市长[br]3.1)需要ethos和logos作者本身的医学素养和有条理的解释是最为重要的,可以酌情使用pathos.[br]2)应该说是一般的广告,在ethos的角度上,宣传了公司的历史悠久和员工素质之好,在pathos的角度上渲染了与客户之间的信任关系,但是缺少足够具体和理智的描述(logos)来让读者信服。[br]3)可以利用大量的当今环境污染数据(logos)和专业知识(ethos)来说明环境污染的严重性和危害之大,同时阐述保护环境的好处和长期利益,其中可以加入个人经历和观点(pathos)以激发读者的同情、愤怒等等。[br]4)表明自己的使用经验和相关知识,两个一起用效果极好(ethos),通过与其他产品的对比和现场的搭配试验(logos)说服,以及动之以情,说明这一件配套设施对于家庭日常生活的重要性(pathos)[br]4.1)继续使用空调会加剧全球变暖,并且会使天气越来越炎热,应该节制使用。[br]2)as the temperature in New York City hit the upper 90s and the heat index topped 100[br]3)这句话用数据表明了当时空调使用对于实际环境的影响之大,当读者看到这一信息的时候会震惊并且产生忧虑[br]4)So the writer demonstrates some statistics in first paragraph, when reader know the data about the weather of New York City, they will worry about it. And then Klinenberg he says the wisely using of air-conditioning in a movie theater or shopping mall can cool down every room in the house, But as a result, today Americans use twice as much energy for air- conditioning as we did 20 years ago,and more than the rest of the world's nation combined. After that, he express his opinion, he says the artificial cooling can save lives of old people,but it can increase the hot air in the earth, and make earth more hotter than before. In the end, he suggests everyone reduce the using of air-conditioning to protect our earth's environment and weather.[br]5.[br]1)Its necessary to build a National Service institutions for our country。[br]2)voluntary service is being championed by retired U.S. Army Gen. Stanley McChrystal, in league with two of the country’s foremost advocates of the cause, John Bridgeland, who served in the George W.Bush administration, and Alan Khazei, co-founder of City Year, one of the nation’s most formidable volunteer groups.[br]3)作者先说了这三个人的身份背景,证明了他们的身份的权威性,并且这三人都同意作者观点,使得作者的文章更令人信服。[br]4)读者会因此也同意作者的观点,并会感觉十分可靠和信服。[br]5)The writer use the three Illustrious person to strengthen his opinion, he says the country should and must build public service.These three persons are all real person in reality, and they are all the experts in political sphere. And on the other hand, reader will convince that, and feels reliable about these three person.And this article has struck a responsive chord in the hearts of its readers. And they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” [br]