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GRE阅读方法课第四节
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#GRE阅读方法课第四节# Passage 8 按照流畅中文的形式翻译!

indigenous
土著的
erosional
侵蚀的
Accordingly
adv. 因此,于是;相应地;照著
variously
adv. 不同地;多方面地;个别地;多彩地
subsistence
n. 生活;生存;存在
句子分析
Until recently, many anthropologists assumed that the environment
of what is now the southwestern United States shaped the social
history and culture of the region's indigenous peoples.
直到最近,许多人类学家假设现在是美国的西南部的这个环境形成了区域性的土著居民的社会历史和文化

Building on
this assumption, archaeologists asserted that adverse
environmental conditions and droughts were responsible for the
disappearances and migrations of southwestern populations from
many sites they once inhabited.
基于这个假设,人类学家断言反转的环境条件和干旱是西南部人口从他们一度居住地方消失和迁徙的原因。
However, such deterministic arguments fail to acknowledge that
local environmental variability in the Southwest makes
generalizing about that environment difficult.
然而,这个决定性的论断无法解释在西南部当地环境的可变性使得产生那样的环境是困难的

To examine the
relationship between environmental variation and sociocultural
change in the Western Pueblo region of central Arizona, which
indigenous tribes have occupied continuously for at least 800
years, a research team recently reconstructed the climatic,
vegetational, and erosional cycles of past centuries.
为了测试在一个土著部落已经持续地占领至少800年的亚利桑那中心西Pueblo地区环境的变化和社会文化改变之间的关系,一个研究组重新建立了在过去几个世纪的气候的、植被的、和腐蚀性的循环。
The researchers found it impossible to provide a single, generally
applicable characterization of environmental conditions for the
region.
研究者发现对于一个地区提供一个单一的,通常地可适用的环境的条件特征是不可能的
Rather, they found that local areas experienced different
patterns of rainfall, wind, and erosion, and that such conditions
had prevailed in the Southwest for the last 1,400 years.
倒不如说,他们发现当地地区经历了不同形式的降雨、风力作用和侵蚀,并且这种条件已经在西南部盛行了1400年。
Rainfall, for example, varied within and between local valley systems, so
that even adjacent agricultural fields can produce significantly
different yields.
例如降雨,在当地的溪流系统之间变化,所以即使是临近的农业用地也会产生显著地不用的田地。
The researchers characterized episodes of variation in
southwestern environments by frequency: low-frequency
environmental processes occur in cycles longer than one human
generation, which generally is considered to last about years, and
high-frequency processes have shorter cycles.
研究者通过频率特征化了西南部环境变化的片段:低频率的环境进程出现在比一个人类的一代更长的循环-这个人类的一代通常被认为持续几年,并且高频率的进程有更短的循环。

The researchers
pointed out that low-frequency processes, such as fluctuations in
stream flow and groundwater levels, would not usually be apparent
to human populations.
研究者指出低频率的过程,例如溪流和地下水的波动,对于人类人口通常是不明显的。
In contrast, high-frequency fluctuations
such as seasonal temperature variations are observable and
somewhat predictable, so that groups could have adapted their
behaviors accordingly.
相反,高频率的波动,例如季节性的温度变化,是可以观测的并且稍微可以预测的,所以群体能够相应地适应他们的行为。
When the researchers compared sequences
of sociocultural change in the Western Pueblo region with episodes
of low- and high-frequency environmental variation, however,
they found no simple correlation between environmental process
and sociocultural change or persistence.
然而, 当研究者比较在西部pueblo地区的社会文化变化序列和高低频率环境变化的片段时,他们发现在环境的过程和社会文化改变或者抵抗之间没有简单的相关性
Although early Pueblo peoples did protect themselves against
environmental risk and uncertainty, they responded variously on
different occasions to similar patterns of high-frequency climatic
and environmental change.
尽管早期的P人的确保护他们自己免受环境风险和不确定性的侵扰,他们对于相似的高频率气候和环境变化形式进行了不同的反映在不同的情况下。
The researchers identified seven major
adaptive responses, including increased mobility, relocation of
permanent settlements, changes in subsistence foods, and reliance
on trade with other groups.
研究者鉴别了七个主要的适应性的反映,包括增加的移动性,永久居所的再定位,
生存食物的改变,和对于其他群体的依赖和贸易
Environmental conditions mattered, but they were rarely, if ever, sufficient to
account for sociocultural persistence and change.
环境条件起作用,但是他们是几乎不足以导致社会文化的抵抗和改变,如果有过的话,
Group size and composition, culture, contact with other groups, and individual
choices and actions were—barring catastrophes such as floods or
earthquakes—significant for a population's survival than were
climate and environment.
群体规模和组成,文化,与其他群体的联系,-除去像洪水和地震的灾难-个人的选择和行动,相较于气候和环境,对于人口的生存是重要的。
19 E 20 E 21 D 22 C
PASSAGE9
contend
竞争;奋斗;斗争;争论
declarative
adj. 宣言的;陈述的,说明的
deficit
n. 赤字;不足额
interference
n. 干扰,冲突;干涉
neither nor
既不是…也不是…
Some researchers contend that sleep plays no role in the
consolidation of declarative memory (i.e., memory involving
factual information).
一些研究者争辩睡眠对于陈述性记忆(例如:牵扯到事实信息的记忆)的巩固没有影响。
These researchers note that people with
impairments in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep continue to lead
normal lives, and they argue that if sleep were crucial for memory,
then these individuals would have apparent memory deficits
这些研究者注释道那些有REM睡眠损伤的人持续过着正常的生活,并且他们争辩道如果睡眠对于记忆是重要的,这些个体将会有明显的记忆缺失。
Yet the same researchers acknowledge that the cognitive capacities of
these individuals have never been systematically examined, nor
have they been the subject of studies of tasks on which
performance reportedly depends on sleep.
然而还是这些研究者解释道这些个体的认知性能力将永远不会被系统性地测试,他们也不会成为一个表现取决于睡眠的任务学习的主要部分
Even if such studies
were done, they could only clarify our understanding of the role of
REM sleep, not sleep in general.
即使做了这种研究,他们也只能澄清我们对于REM睡眠所扮演的角色的理解,而不是通常的睡眠
These researchers also claim that improvements of memory
overnight can be explained by the mere passage of time, rather
than attributed to sleep.
这些研究者也宣称整晚的记忆提高可以仅仅被时间段解释,而不是归功于睡眠

But recent studies of memory performance
after sleep–including one demonstrating that sleep stabilizes
declarative memories from future interference caused by mental
activity during wakefulness–make this claim unsustainable.
但是最近的关于睡眠之后的记忆表现的研究- 包括睡眠从未来的干扰中稳固了陈述性记忆的论述 -使得这个宣称变得无法证实了
Certainly there are memory consolidation processes that occur
across periods of wakefulness, some of which neither depend on
nor are enhanced by sleep.
当然,这理由贯穿出现在清醒时期的记忆稳定进程,这其中的一些既不依赖于睡眠也不通过睡眠扩展
But when sleep is compared with
wakefulness, and performance is better after sleep, then some
benefit of sleep for memory must be acknowledged.
但是当睡觉和清醒比较时,并且在睡觉之后的表现更好,一些睡眠对于记忆的益处就必须被解释了。
23 C 24 A 25 E 26 B
PASSAGE 10
underimage

X-ray examination of a recently discovered painting—judged by
some authorities to be a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh—
revealed an underimage of a woman’s face.
最近发现的绘画(一些权威人士判断这是梵高的自画像)的一个X射线的测试揭示了女性脸的下部图片
Either van Gogh or another painter covered the first painting with the portrait now seen on the surface of the canvas.
梵高或者另一个画家用肖像覆盖了第一个绘画,这个肖像现在可以在画布的表面看到


Because the face of the woman
in the underimage also appears on canvases van Gogh is known to
have painted, the surface painting must be an authentic selfportrait
by van Gogh.
因为在图像的女人的脸也出现在了梵高已经画的那个画布上,表面绘画一定是梵高的权威性的自画像
27 C
2018-01-31 18:58:31 来自 GRE 方法课作业
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[br]总结了一下,主要错的题目类型有:[br]①多重信息定位--推断题(3题)[br]②结构功能题(4题)[br]③单一信息定位题(1题)[br]④主旨大意题(1题)[br]不总结不知道,错得最多的题型竟然是结构功能题,原因可能是以前托福考试的句子功能题偏简单,所以没花什么时间刻意训练,没有下意识地去找每一个evidence和fact的论证对象和论证主体,看完句子后也没有留下关于这个句子是informative sentence还是persuasive sentence的印象。[br]因此针对方法就是:[br]1、在七星大法的第五步中,除了总结每一句、段的主旨大意之外,还务必准确判断功能,划分类型。[br]2、在七星大法的第七步中,每一个evidence和fact的论证主体和论证对象都要清楚回忆。[br]3、总结该题型选项中的关键词,列词表,重复运用直至能直接根据关键词排除选项。[br]以上,嗯。[br]另外关于Passage 10逻辑题,老师的解释实在有点高深,不妨自己来总结一下:[br]首先总结文本:[br]S:self-portrait by Van Gogh;W:woman's face[br]① S下面有W[br]② S可能是V画的,也可能是others画的[br]③ W在V画的画中出现过,因此W是V画的[br]终极结论:如果W是V画的(假言前件),那么S也是V画的(假言后件)[br]显然充分条件假言命题。[br]只有BC有争议,B选项中无否定词,肯定后件无法肯定前件,错。[br]C选项有2个否定词,原句取逆否,即:如果S不是V画的,那么W也不是V画的,正确。[br]D选项只有一个否定词,排除。[br]不过要是正常点的GRE考试都不会这么暴躁吧?要在考场我当场就炸了我说[br]