#GRE阅读方法课第三节# 11.C
2017-04-23 21:40:46 来自 GRE 方法课作业
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2017-04-25 09:07
GRE 方法课作业
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Passage5:[br]confound[br]使混淆[br]posthumous[br]死后的,作者死后出版的[br]scant[br]不足的,缺乏的; 减少[br]venue[br]审判地,犯罪地,集合地[br]resort[br]手段,度假胜地;求助,诉诸[br]terse[br]简练的,精炼的[br]synoptic[br]摘要的,概要的[br]documentarian[br]纪录片制片人[br]句子分析:[br]The condition of scholarship devoted to the history of women in[br]photography is confounding.[br]奉献于在摄影女性的历史的奖学金的条件是混淆的[br][br][br]Recent years have witnessed the[br]posthumous inflation of the role of the hobbyist Alice Austen into[br]that of a pioneering documentarian while dozens of notable senior[br]figures—Marion Palfi, whose photographs of civil-rights activities[br]in the South served as early evidence of the need for protective[br]legislation, to name one—received scant attention from scholars.[br]最近几年已经见识到了业余爱好者AA的角色到了那个记录制片人先锋的死后的膨胀,当许多显著高级的形象---MP(它的在南部的公民权利活动的照片作为对早期的需要保护性法律的证据的服务,去命名一个东西---从学者们那里收到缺乏的注意)[br]And, while Naomi Rosenblum’s synoptic History of Women[br]Photographers covers the subject through 1920 in a generally[br]useful fashion, once she reaches the 1920s, when the venues,[br]forms, applications, and movements of the medium expanded[br]exponentially, she resorts to an increasingly terse listing of[br]unfamiliar names, with approaches and careers summarized in a[br]sentence or two.[br]并且,当NR的女性摄影者历史摘要用一个通常地有用的时尚在920年覆盖了这个学科,一旦他到达了1920s(在这个时间集合的形式,申请者,和媒介的移动潜在地扩展),她求助于一个增长的有不熟悉名字的简练的列表,通路和事业被总结在一两句话里[br]11 C 12 AC 13 A[br]Passage6[br]forfeit[br]罚金,没收物,丧失[br]forage[br]饲料,材料;搜寻[br]equivocal[br]模棱两可的[br]subcutaneous[br]皮下的,皮下用的[br]nightingale[br]夜莺[br]incur[br]招致,引发,蒙受[br]thermoregulation[br]温度调节[br]shelter[br]庇护,避难所[br]roost[br]栖息,栖木[br]rooster[br]公鸡,狂妄自负的人[br]crow[br]啼叫,报晓[br]per se[br]本身,自身[br]Animal signals, such as the complex songs of birds, tend to be[br]costly.[br]动物信号,例如鸟类的复杂歌声,倾向于耗费很大[br]A bird, by singing, may forfeit time that could otherwise be[br]spent on other important behaviors such as foraging or resting.[br]Singing may also advertise an individual’s location to rivals or[br]predators and impair the ability to detect their approach.[br]一个鸟,通过唱歌,可能丧失时间,这些时间否则可以用来其他重要的行为,例如搜寻或休息。唱歌可能仍旧会向敌人或捕食者暴露一个个体的位置,并且损害他们侦察敌人和捕食者路径的能力。[br]Although[br]these types of cost may be important, discussions of the cost of[br]singing have generally focused on energy costs.[br]尽管这些种类的花费可能是重要的,对于唱歌花费的讨论已经一般地集中于能量花费了[br]Overall the[br]evidence is equivocal: for instance, while Eberhardt found[br]increases in energy consumption during singing for Carolina[br]wrens, Chappell found no effect of crowing on energy[br]consumption in roosters.[br]总的来说证据是模棱两可的:例如,当E发现在Cw唱歌的时候能量消耗增加了,C发现公鸡的啼叫能量消耗没有受到影响[br]To obtain empirical data regarding the energy costs of singing,[br]Thomas examined the relationship between song rate and[br]overnight changes in body mass of male nightingales.[br]考虑唱歌的能量消耗为了获得经验性的数据,托马斯测试了在唱歌率和在雄夜莺身体整晚的改变[br][br]Birds store[br]energy as subcutaneous fat deposits or "body reserves"; changes in[br]these reserves can be reliably estimated by measuring changes in[br]body mass.[br]鸟类存储能量当皮下的脂肪沉淀或者“身体保留”,在这些保留中的变化可以通过测量体重的变化被可以依赖地估计[br]If singing has important energy costs, nightingales[br]should lose more body mass on nights when their song rate is high.[br]如果唱歌有重要的能量消耗,夜莺应该在夜晚(这时候他们的唱歌率很高)失去更多的体重[br]Thomas found that nightingales reached a significantly higher[br]body mass at dusk and lost more mass overnight on nights when[br]their song rate was high.[br]托马斯发现夜莺在黄昏时分到达一个显著地更高的体重并且在夜晚整晚失去更多的体重,在这是他们的唱歌率很高[br]These results suggest that there may be several costs of singing at[br]night associated with body reserves. The increased metabolic cost[br]of possessing higher body mass contributes to the increased[br]overnight mass loss.[br]这些结果说明在夜晚可能有多个与身体存量有关的唱歌的耗费。拥有更高身体质量的增加的新陈代谢耗费导致增加的整夜的质量损失[br]The strategic regulation of evening body[br]reserves is also likely to incur additional costs, as nightingales[br]must spend more time foraging in order to build up larger body[br]reserves.[br]当夜莺必须花费更多时间去搜寻-为了建立更大的身体存量-夜晚身体存量的策略性的规律仍可能招来额外的花费[br]The metabolic cost of singing itself may also contribute[br]to increased loss of reserves. This metabolic cost may arise from[br]the muscular and neural activity involved in singing or from[br]behaviors associated with singing.[br]唱歌本身的新陈代谢花费可能仍旧增加的存量丢失。这个新陈代谢花费可能是由于与唱歌有关的肌肉或神经活动或者由于与唱歌有关的行为。[br]For example, birds may expend[br]more of their reserves on thermoregulation if they spend the night[br]exposed to the wind on a song post than if they are in a sheltered[br]roost site.[br]例如,鸟类可能花费他们的更多存量在温度调节上如果他们整晚暴露在一个在风里的唱歌点而不是受庇护的栖息地[br][br][br]Thomas’s data therefore show that whether or not[br]singing per se has an important metabolic cost, metabolic costs[br]associated with singing can have an important measurable effect[br]on a bird’s daily energy budget, at least in birds with high song[br]rates such as nightingales.[br]因此托马斯的数据展示 不管唱歌本身是否有重要的新陈代谢花费,与唱歌有关的新陈代谢花费对一个鸟的日常能量平衡有重要的可以测量的影响,至少在那些像夜莺一样有很高唱歌率的鸟中是这样的[br]14 C 15 B [br]16 Thomas found that nightingales reached a significantly higher[br]body mass at dusk and lost more mass overnight on nights when[br]their song rate was high.[br]17 B[br]Passage7[br]forage[br]Ha,wkmoths[br]天蛾[br]句子分析:[br]The plant called the scarlet gilia can have either red or white[br]flowers.[br]被叫做SG的植物可以有红的或白的花[br][br]It had long been thought that hummingbirds, which forage[br]by day, pollinate its red flowers and that hawkmoths, which forage[br]at night, pollinate its white flowers.[br]长时间被认为,蜂鸟,一种在白天寻找的,在它的红花上传粉,天蛾,在夜间寻找的,在它的白花上传粉[br]To try to show that this pattern[br]of pollination by colors exists, scientists recently covered some[br]scarlet gilia flowers only at night and others only by day: plants[br]with red flowers covered at night became pollinated; plants with[br]white flowers covered by day became pollinated.[br]为了展示通过颜色传份的这种形式是存在的,科学家最近收集了一些只在夜晚的GA花和其他的只在白天的;在夜间的植物的红花被传份,在白天的植物的白花被传份[br]18 A[br]