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托福阅读方法课第一节
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#托福阅读方法课第一节# 迟来的阅读课第一次打卡, Animal Farm Charpter I ~
2016-08-14 19:58:52 来自 托福 3.0 方法课作业
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O ne of the most famous (or infamous) frauds in the[br]history of science is known as the Piltdown Man,[br]remains of a supposed primitive hominid (原始人类) found in[br]1912 by an amateur paleontologist(古生物学家) named Charles Dawson[br]and a professional paleontologist named Arthur Smith[br]Woodward. In fact, two sets of these remains were discovered[br]between the years 1912 and 1917. The first of these two was found[br]in the Piltdown gravel pit(砾石坑) in Sussex, England. (where they were fund)While digging in the pit, the paleontologists found a humanlike skull(颅骨) with a jawbone similar to that of an ape.[br]This finding appeared to be the remains of a missing link, the connecting evolutionary[br]step between apes and humans. (The meaning of the finding)The discoverers named the remains Eoanthropus(原人类)[br]dawsoni, or “Dawson’s Dawn Man,” but it was later commonly known as the Piltdown[br]Man due to the location of its finding.[br]The Piltdown Man was an immediate sensation. He seemed to fit all of the[br]Criteria(标准)expected in the missing link---a mixture of human and ape with the noble[br]Brow(高贵的额头)of Homo sapiens and a primitive jaw.(the use) Best of all, he was British! The reaction[br]to the findings was mixed. On the whole, British paleontologists were enthusiastic(热情的). [br]However, French and American paleontologists tended to be skeptical of the origins of[br]the Piltdown Man, some objecting to its credibility quite vociferously. (the reaction of humans)The objectors[br]held that the jawbone and the skull were obviously from two different animals and[br]that their discoveries together was simply an accident of placement. At first, fraud[br]wasn’t suspected. The fossils were, after all, cleverly done, and no money was[br]involved. In addition, there were other European finds related to the missing links of[br]modern-day man,(connections to the fossils) such as the Neanderthal, Cro-Magnon Man, and Heidelberg Man.[br]So, having found another “missing link” in the history of modern man’s evolution[br]was not so surprising to some researchers.[br]However, some investigators were doubtful of the origins of the Piltdown Man[br]since some initial evidence led to the idea that the jaw could be from a chimpanzee.(doubt and reasons)[br]In addition, the researchers expressed strong doubt that the skull and the jaw were[br]from the same species. The perpetrators of the hoax solved this problem by[br]planting a second jaw and a second skull at another nearby location. Therefore, the[br]report in 1917 of the discovery of “Piltdown Man II” converted many of the skeptics.[br]The reasoning was that one accident of placement was plausible, but two were not.[br]So after this second finding, some of the doubters were satisfied. Moreover, a few[br]prominent British scientists failed to perform tests that they should have done and[br]obstructed other scientists’ access to the fossils.(to prove)[br]Some historians believe that the discoverers of the Piltdown Man and these[br]scientists may have been co-conspirators in the hoax. The fame of the Piltdown[br]Man continued for forty years. It was featured in professional articles and books, in[br]newspaper reports, and even in high school biology textbooks. In the four decades[br]from 1910 to 1950, there was, of course, some opposition from scientific critics who[br]claimed that the skull was human but the jaw was that of an ape.[br]During the 1950s, the validity of the Piltdown Man discovery was questioned[br]further. Researchers claimed that almost all, if not all, of the fossils had been planted[br]in the pit in modern times and that several of these items had even been fabricated[br]by someone. These scientific detectives, among them Joseph Weiner and Kenneth[br]Oakley, disproved the validity of the Piltdown Man with technical evidence showing[br]that the skull belonged to an English lady and the jaw to an Asian orangutan.[br]Chemical tests in 1953 further proved that in fact, everything was fake! The found[br]pieces had been stained, filed, smashed, and so on, in a fairly clever way, thus[br]leading people to initially believe that the Piltdown Man was real.[br]But the question still remains: Who did it? More than a dozen[br]suspects have been named; the only one famous enough to be[br]recognized by most readers is Arthur Conan Doyle. But as we[br]approach the 100th anniversary of the Piltdown Man, there is[br]still no certainty of just who created the greatest hoax in the[br]history of science.[br]Time: 5 minutes 24 seconds [br]Words: 703 words[br]Speed: 130.185wpm[br]

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